Parasitic worm infestation of the breast
The mammogram demonstrates multiple, coarse, serpiginous, focal calcifications in the right breast which do not conform to a vascular or a ductal configuration. Similar findings were seen in the left breast.
These findings are characteristic of prior parasitic worm infestation such as dracunculiasis (guinea worm) and filariasis. The calcifications represent dead calcified worms in the breast tissue.
Dracunculiasis is endemic in Sudan, Mali and Ethiopia, and is contracted by drinking water contaminated by water fleas that host Dracunculus larvae. After ingestion the larvae penetrate the intestinal mucosa and migrate into the subcutaneous tissues. Adult female worms emerge through skin lesions, usually on the lower limbs.
Filariasis is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the breast is a recognised though infrequent site of involvement.
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